La seguridad energética en la geopolítica estadounidense del siglo XXI

María Luisa Parraguez Kobek, Alberto Ugarte Ortega, Georgina Campero Aguilar

Resumen


A través de la historia, Estados Unidos ha demostrado su pragmatismo político y habilidad de adaptación. En el siglo XXI la búsqueda de su seguridad energética es un factor central para definir su política exterior. Para comprender la influencia que tiene la seguridad energética es fundamental entender el impacto del excepcionalismo estadounidense en la creación y el desarrollo de políticas públicas eficientes y eficaces. La diversificación de sus fuentes de energía ha transformado su matriz energética permitiéndole reducir la dependencia internacional y consolidando su papel como poder mundial. El fortalecimiento del sistema económico global estará vinculado al funcio­namiento de los mercados energéticos internacionales en los cuales Estados Unidos se perfila como líder.


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Administración de Información de Energía de EE.UU. (2015). Annual Energy Outlook 2015. EIA. Recuperado de http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/

Banco Mundial (2014). China. WB. Recuperado de http://datos.bancomundial.org/pais/china

Banco Mundial (2014). Estados Unidos. WB. Recuperado de http://datos.bancomundial.org/pais/estados-unidos

Banco Mundial (2014). Unión Europea. WB. Recuperado de http://datos.bancomundial.org/pais/union-eurpea

Banco Mundial (2014). Importaciones de energía, valor neto (% del uso de energía). WB. Recuperado de http://datos.bancomundial.org/indicador/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS/countries/1W?display=graph

Baumann, F. (2008). Energy Security as multidimensional concept. CAP Policy Analysis. Recuperado de http://www.cap.lmu.de/download/2008/CAP-Policy-Analysis-2008-01.pdf

BBC News. (2014). Energy security threatened by rising tensions, says IEA report. BBC News. Recuperado de http://www.bbc.com/news/business-30021824

Blackwill, R. (2014). America's Energy Edge. Foreign Affairs. Recuperado de http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140750/robert-d-blackwill-and-meghan-l-osullivan/americas-energy-edge

Boehner, J. (2012). Reasserting American Exceptionalism in the U.S.–Russia Relationship. The Heritage Foundation. Recuperado de http://www.heritage.org/research/lecture/2012/01/reasserting-american-exceptionalism-in-the-us-russia-relationship?ac=1

Casa Blanca (2015). Fact Sheet: President Obama to Announce Historic Carbon Pollution Standards for Power Plants. Oficina de la Secretaria de Prensa de la Casa Blanca. Recuperado de https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/08/03/fact-sheet-president-obama-announce-historic-carbon-pollution-standards

Ceaser, W. (2012). The Origins and Character of American Exceptionalism. American Political Thought. Recuperado de http://www.polisci.wisc.edu/Uploads/Documents/Ceaser.pdf

Clinton, H. (2011). America’s Pacific Century. Foreign Policy. Recuperado de http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/10/11/americas-pacific-century/

Copenhagen Consensus Center (2015). Post-2015 Consensus: Energy Perspective. Copenhagen Consensus Center. Recuperado de http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/publication/post-2015-consensus-energy-perspective-morris

David, V. (2013). China’s Energy Challenge: Setting the Scene. Stanford University. Recuperado de http://www.revistascisan.unam.mx/Norteamerica/pdfs/n19/02.Parraguez.pdf

Departamento de Energía (2015). Departamento de Energía. US Department of Energy. Recuperado de http://www.energy.gov/

Energy Information Administration (2014). Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States. EIA. Recuperado de http://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/

Energy Information Administration (2014). Total Petroleum and Other Liquids Production, 2014. EIA. Recuperado de http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?iso=SAU&cy=2014

Fondo Monetario Internacional (2013). Repunte gradual del crecimiento mundial en 2013. FMI. Recuperado de https://www.imf.org/external/spanish/pubs/ft/weo/2013/update/01/pdf/0113s.pdf

Goldenberg, S. (2015). Stanford professors urge withdrawal from fossil fuel investments. The Guardian. Recuperado de http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jan/11/stanford-professors-fossil-fuel-investments

Goldwyn, D. (2014). The Harmonization of U.S. National Security and Climate Goals. Brookings Institution. Recuperado de http://www.brookings.edu/research/testimony/2014/07/22-us-energy-climate-security-goldwyn

Hartley, P. (2011). Shale Gas and U.S. National Security. The Baker Institute. Recuperado de http://bakerinstitute.org/research/shale-gas-and-us-national-security/

Healy, G. (2014). An Exceptional America Is More than Just American Exceptionalism. Cato Institute. Recuperado de http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/exceptional-america-more-just-american-exceptionalism

International Energy Agency (2014). Energy Indicators. IEA. Recuperado de http://energyatlas.iea.org/?subject=-297203538

Kagan, R. (2015). Is Democracy in Decline? The Weight of Geopolitics. Brookings Institution. Recuperado de http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/2015/01/democracy-in-decline-weight-of-geopolitics-kagan

Lipset, S. (1996). American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. 1996.

Luft, G. (2013). The Myth of U.S. Energy Dependence. Foreign Affairs. Recuperado de http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140172/gal-luft-and-anne-korin/the-myth-of-us-energy-dependence

Mayfield, J. (2014). Game Changers Explores a Cheaper, Cleaner, and More Secure National Energy System. Hoover Institution. Recuperado de http://www.hoover.org/press-releases/game-changers-explores-cheaper-cleaner-and-more-secure-national-energy-system

Miller, J. (2014). Growing Middle East Threats to U.S. Energy Security. The Energy Collective. Disponible en: http://theenergycollective.com/jemillerep/1519626/growing-middle-east-threats-us-energy-security

Murkowski, L. (2013). Energy 20/20. U.S. Senate. Recuperado de http://www.energy.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/files/serve?File_id=099962a5-b523-4551-b979-c5bac6d45698

Murray, C. (2013). American Exceptionalism: An Experiment in History (Values and Capitalism). 1st Edition, American Enterprise Institute Press.

Obama, B. (2011). Remarks by the President on America’s Energy Security. White House. Recuperado de www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/30/remarks-presidentamericas-energy-security

Oficina del Censo de los Estados Unidos (2014). U.S. and World Population Clock. United States Census Bureau. Recuperado de http://www.census.gov/popclock/

Reed, M. (2015). Taking Stock of ISIS Oil: Part 1. The Fuse. Recuperado de http://energyfuse.org/taking-stock-of-isis-oil-part-

Schrope, M. (2012). Fracking Outpaces Science on Its Impact. School of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Yale University. Recuperado de http://environment.yale.edu/envy/stories/fracking-outpaces-science-on-its-impact

Securing America's Future Energy. (2014). Energy Security Fact Pack. Securing America's Future Energy. Recuperado de http://www.secureenergy.org/policy/FactPackQ32014

Sipri. (2014). Trends in world military expenditure. SIPRI. Recuperado de http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=496#

Solana, J. (2013). The Shale Revolution’s Global Footprint. Brookings Institution. Recuperado de http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/11/20-shale-revolution-global-footprint-solana

Tyrrell, I. (1991). American Exceptionalism in an Age of International History. The American Historical Review. Vol. 96, No. 4 (Oct., 1991), pp. 1031-1055. Oxford University Press. Recuperado de http://www.jstor.org/stable/2164993

Weitz, R. (2014). The Russia-China Gas Deal: Implications and Ramifications. World Affairs Journal. Recuperado de http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/russia-china-gas-deal-implications-and-ramifications

World Energy Council. (2014). 2014 World Energy Trilemma: Energy future hinges upon financing choices today. World Energy Council. Recuperado de http://www.worldenergy.org/news-and-media/news/energy-future-hinges-upon-financing-choices-today-warns-world-energy-council/


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2015 Revista Enfoques

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

Revista Enfoques – ISSN 0718-9656 versión en línea | ISSN 0718-0241 versión impresa
Facultad de Gobierno – Universidad Central de Chile - Correo electrónico: enfoques@ucentral.cl
Sitio web adaptación de Open Journal Systems